The Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning

Publication Multi-Level Analysis of Urban and Spatial Development

original title: Stadtentwicklung beobachten, messen und umsetzen

cover: IzR 1/2021

Editor: BBSR Series: Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (IzR) Issue: 1/2021 Published: April 2021 ISSN: 0303-2493 Language: German (mostly) / English

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Conventions of the United Nations call for monitoring and scaling urban development across levels of governance and action. Among these are the New Urban Agenda as well as the 2030 Agenda and its Sustainable Development Goals, in short SDGs. The conventions take on the fact that monitoring and scaling is a reality in some part in the same way as these are reference points. They thus contribute in a supranational and national perspective to retrace urban development on an evidence base – possible adjustments in technical and political terms included.

A comprehensive urban monitoring has already been partly in place for some time. Yet, it has not managed so far to activate a broad effect, despite the aforementioned calls of the United Nations. The next IzR volume presents examples from Germany and countries worldwide on different ways of change. The authors describe the methodological definition of a “city”. They also explain which approaches towards multi-level monitoring of urban development failed in everyday life or stood the test of time. Concrete project examples scrutinise the way in which public funding institutions employ databased monitoring systems.

Antonia Milbert, André Müller, Daniel Regnery, Volker Schmidt-Seiwert, Friederike Vogel

Table of contents

André Müller

Multi-level analysis of urban and spatial development – an introduction and a synthesis
The monitoring of urban development in a holistic manner has been exercised so far in a few cases only. Concrete examples from Germany and abroad show how this situation might be altered.
Download (PDF, 421 KB, File meets accessibility standards)

(in German)

Tobias Link

Empirical definition of a city
The European Commission delivers a definition of a city which allows the comparison between countries. The information system Urban Audit and the approach of Functional Urban Areas may thus serve as data-oriented reference points on the local level.

(in German)

Antonia Milbert, André Müller, Volker Schmidt-Seiwert

Multi-level monitoring – local, regional, national, European and global
A multi-level monitoring is developed best in a learning process. This article shows how national and international institutions may support cities and communities in doing so.
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(in German)

Dennis Mwaniki, Robert Ndugwa

The Global Urban Monitoring Approach Taken by UN-Habitat
Monitoring the development of built-up areas for settlement and transport purposes under the SDG 11.3.1 constitutes one of the basic elements of UN-Habitat’s Data and Analytics Section.

(in English)

Jürgen Göddecke-Stellmann, Teresa Lauerbach

Multi-level monitoring – its importance for the local and inner-urban level in Germany
The inner-urban spatial monitoring is an information system of the BBSR based on urban districts. Considering particularly the SDGs, it gains in importance.

(in German)

In conversation with Jasmin Jossin, Oliver Peters,Henrik Scheller

The multi-level monitoring of sustainability: experiences from practice
The draft of the first National Progress Report on Implementing the New Urban Agenda initiates a methodological discussion: how may sustainability targets be measured?

(in German)

Debolina Kundu, Arvind Pandey

Multi-Level Measuring – Monitoring and Reporting on Urban Development in India
The cooperation between BBSR and the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) helps to better understand urban development in a transcultural way.

(in English)

In conversation with Brigitte Bariol-Mathais

The multi-level implementation of the SDGs: the example of France
At which point is a development sustainable? The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies Insee in France holds respective data at hand. Local authorities need guidance in reaching the sustainability goals.

(in German)

Vivi Niemenmaa, Satu Lähteenoja,
Kaisa Schmidt-Thomé

Supreme Audit Institutions Assessing Governments´ Action
Finland is one of the frontrunners in sustainable development policies globally. Government has a key role especially in integrating sustainability to the national budget. Government external auditors call for better policy coherence and long-term approach.

(in English)

In conversation with Khoo Teng Chye

Monitoring Urban Development in Singapore
How Singapore has taken a systems approach to integrated planning and urban governance at various scales in the city-state’s urban development? Singapore’s methodology has resulted in liveable city outcomes that are wellaligned with the SDGs.

(in English)

In conversation with Sabine Drees

Multi-level monitoring in cities and communities
Cities and communities are crucial partners in monitoring urban development in a multi-level manner. Local data deliver fundamental information for processes of planning and decision-making on regional and national level.

(in German)

Maps as downloads

Development of built-up area in relation to population development in Europe
Download (PDF, 2 MB, File meets accessibility standards)

Development of built-up area in relation to population development in regions worldwide
Download (PDF, 28 MB, File meets accessibility standards)

Development of built-up area in relation to population development in the United States of America
Download (PDF, 6 MB, File meets accessibility standards)

Development of built-up area in relation to population development in China
Download (PDF, 7 MB, File meets accessibility standards)

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