The Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning

Publication Spatial impacts of transport infrastructure projects in urban regions based on ex-post assessments

Original title: "Räumliche Wirkungen von Verkehrsprojekten. Ex post Analysen im stadtregionalen Kontext"

Editor: BBSR Series: BBSR-Online-Publikation Issue: 2/2011 Published: February 2011 ISSN: 1868-0097 URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-20110222515 Language: German

Editing:
Spiekermann & Wegener, Stadt- und Regionalforschung (S&W), Dortmund
Klaus Spiekermann
RRG Spatial Planning and Geoinformation, Oldenburg i. H.
Carsten Schürmann

Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR), Bonn
Klaus Einig

Abstract

Objective of the study is to investigate spatial impacts of transport infrastructure projects in urban regions already in operation based on ex-post assessments. Subgoals are the development of an appropriate method for the research question, the application of the method in different case studies to gain empirical knowledge on the relationship of transport infrastructure investments and spatial development, and the documentation of the results for use in practice, theory and model development within transport and spatial planning.

The method is based on a discussion of relevant literature and on the theoretical concept of the "transport land use feedback cycle". According to this feedback cycle there is a continuous dynamic within and between the fields of transport and land use. The transport system and its changes over time influence by changing accessibilities and their spatial patterns the mobility behaviour and, in longer perspective, also the locational behaviour of actors in space. This leads again to changes in the transport system. Accordingly, new transport infrastructures have impacts on both transport and spatial development of which in this study only the latter is analysed.

Spatial impacts of new transport infrastructures include - besides the effects on accessibility - changing attractivities of locations, location decisions and building activities of investors with the consequence of changing urban structures, the location decisions and movements of firms and households and eventually a modified spatial distribution of human activities, i.e. the use of locations. For each of these impact fields - accessibility, attractivity, construction activities, movements and land use - quantitative impact indicators were developed. These were used to analyse in a quantitative manner whether new transport infrastructures induce spatial impacts in form of specific developments in a corridor along the new transport infrastructures, as opposed to general trends in the urban region.

The method was applied to four different case studies in German agglomerations (Munich, Karlsruhe, Paderborn, and Hamburg). In each case study the spatial impact of a transport infrastructure that has been in operation for about fifteen years already were investigated. The case studies differ by the type of infrastructure (road or rail) and its spatial orientation with respect to the core city (radial or tangential). The analyses focus on the one hand on a corridor accommodating the new infrastructure (project corridor) and on a comparable corridor without new infrastructure in the region, and on the other hand on the total urban region. The spatial resolution of the analyses ranges from the level of single buildings via raster cells of 1 ha in size to the level of municipalities and to aggregation in form of counties and the two corridors.

For each case study a comprehensive data base was established for the calculation of the impact indicators. The transport system and its development over time was covered by detailed transport networks for road and public transport. Based on this, a variety of accessibility indicators were modeled, by which the changes in the transport system were translated into spatial indicators. Indicators describing the settlement structure were partly based on GIS-procedures and partly taken from official statistics. Socio-economic data describing structures and interaction were taken from different statistical sources or were especially provided by different institutions.

The question on the spatial impacts of new transport infrastructure can be answered based on the case study analyses with yes. It has been shown that based on above regional average increases of accessibilities spatial impacts occurred in the project corridors and beyond. Increases of land values, above regional average increases of settlement activities together with relative high population and/or job gains and additional commuting from the project corridors to the core cities could be demonstrated in different case studies. At the level of the total urban regions clear relationships between accessibility, accessibility changes and their impacts on other indicators as well as the combined working of different indicators to explain spatial development in urban regions could be statistically confirmed.

However, in none of the case studies all of the impacts occurred. The intensity of the impacts differed as well. Nevertheless, at the level of the urban region, similar spatial impact pattern could be shown for three of the four case studies (Munich, Karlsruhe, Hamburg). The spatial development pattern of the fourth case study (Paderborn) was different, because obviously this region is in a different phase of urban development.

Finally, the results of the case studies were generalised to broad relationships between accessibility improvements and spatial development in the urban and regional context. Based on these findings this study concludes with further research directions.


The abstract is part of the German publication "Räumliche Wirkungen von Verkehrsprojekten. Ex post Analysen im stadtregionalen Kontext", BBSR-Online-Publikation 02/11, Hrsg.:BBSR, February 2010, Bonn
ISSN 1868-0097, urn:nbn:de:101:1-20110222515
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