The Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning

Publication Primary energetic factors of biogenic energy carriers, waste heat sources and waste incineration plants

BMVBS-Online-Publikation 12/12, Ed.: BMVBS, June 2012

Series: BMVBS-Online-Publikationen Published: July 2012

Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH (IFEU), Heidelberg
Dr. Martin Pehnt (project leader), Florian Herbert, Sven Gärtner, Regine Vogt, Horst Fehrenbach
eta energy consulting GbR, Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm
Bernhard Negele, Volkmar Schäfer
ECONSULT Lambrecht Jungmann Partnerschaft, Rottenburg
Uli Jungmann, Klaus Lambrecht
Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS), Berlin
André Hempel

Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR), Bonn
Hans-Peter Lawrenz


In this study, primary energy factors fP are calculated for different energy sources with an emphasis on biomass, waste and waste heat, and methodological issues are discussed. PE factors are used in particular within the framework of the Energy Saving Ordinance (Ener-gieeinsparverordnung EnEV) to determine the annual primary energy requirement for a build-ing. By choosing a fuel with a low non-renewable PE factor the client can reduce its non-renewable primary energy consumption considerably and may, depending on the building design, not have to take measures such as ventilation or installation engineering.

This report determines fP (MJ primary energy per MJ energy carrier) for solid, liquid and gaseous biomass as well as district heating based on boilers and CHP units with these fuels, waste heat and heat generated in waste disposal plants. Toward this end, LCAs are carried out for reference cases.

The LCA of solid biomass lead to fP between 0.02 for wood chips from waste wood and 0.17 for wood pellets from short rotation forestry. Biomethane from upgraded biogas achieves 0.36, liquid biofuels between 0.21 and 0.48. Especially for palm oil, the primary energy factor does not mirrow the associated greenhouse gas impacts which depend heavily on land-use changes.

In the case of CHP systems, the primary energy factor is very low as long as 100% of the heat stem from the renewable energy carrier. Depending on the credit/allocation procedure selected, for systems with peak boilers using fossil fuels the fP gradually increases to up to 0.48 in a system with 30% fossil share in a modified electricity credit procedure.

For waste heat, the study distinguishes between systems where the efficiency of the primary process is not affected by using the waste heat and those for which an additional energy demand occurs. Depending on the system, fP <0 up to 0.2 are calculated. The use of industrial waste heat should generally be promoted; a default value of 0.2 ist proposed. To avoid abuse, this study defines certain quality criteria for the waste heat system.

Waste incineration plants were also analyzed with respect to their primary energy balance. Whereas the transport of waste contributes relatively low amounts to the overall balance, the energy efficiency of the plant as well as the allocation procedure is of high importance. The study proposes to separately account for the peak boiler by using the modified electricity credit procedure.

The current secondary requirement of EnEV (maximum specific transmission loss HT’) insuf-ficiently guarantees the gentle utilisation of renewable fuels. The quite substantial energy savings potentials - or vice versa, the potential waste of energy - in the field of ventilation, air tightness, solar gain and efficient systems engineering are not adequately covered at low PE factors. The study favours a future secondary requirement based on the values of heat energy Q*H and Q*TW in the DIN V 4701-10, and Qh,outg, Qh*,outg, Qc,outg, Qc*,outg and Qw,outg in the DIN V 18599, respectively.

The abstract is part of the German publication "Primärenergiefaktoren von biogenen Energieträgern, Abwärmequellen und Müllverbrennungsanlagen" - BMVBS-Online-Publikation 12/12, Hrsg.: BMVBS, Juni 2012, Berlin
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